Urinary Catheterization of Men and Women
Including Information on Urinary Tract Infection
Explore the links below to learn about catheterization and urinary tract infections.
- Intermittent Self-Catheterization
- Care of Reusable Catheters
- Indwelling Catheters
- Care of Leg Bags and Night Drainage Systems
- Urinary Tract Infection
- Medicare Coverage of Catheters
Catheterizations are performed in the hospital, home, and/or skilled nursing facility at a rate of 4-5 million per year for people who are unable to adequately empty their bladder. This treatment, although quite necessary, can pose a significant risk of infection especially among people with chronic disease. Urinary tract infections (UTI) increase the cost of healthcare, morbidity (sickness), and even mortality (death) among people of all ages. The estimated annual cost of UTIs is over $1.6 billion.
Proper care and management of all types of bladder and urethral catheterizations and equipment are extremely important. This pamphlet covers catheterization of men and women and is aimed at reducing the risks of infection and other problems. It is not designed to diagnose or recommend any treatment for medical problems; rather, it is meant to be a supplemental teaching tool. Always consult your doctor or other healthcare provider before trying anything mentioned in this or any other publication that speaks to general health issues.
Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Survey and certification group. Delay in effective date for revisions of appendix PP, state operations manual, 36: 375-380surveyor guidance for incontinence and catheters. CMS S&C Publication No. S&C- 05-23. Accessed March 2006 at: www.cms.hhs.gov/medicaid/survey-cert/sc0523.pdf
Cheung, K et al (2008) Water versus antiseptic periurethral cleansing before Catheterization among home care patients: A randomized controlled trial.Am J Infection Control 36: 375-380
Chinnes, L, Dillion, A, Fauerbach, L. (2002) Home Care Handbook of infection control 2002. Washington, DC: Association of Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC)
Dille, C.A. & Kirchhoff, K. (1993). Decontamination of vinyl urinary drainage Bags with bleach. Rehabilitation Nursing. 18 (5). 292-295.
Emr, K., Ryan, R. (2004) Best practice for indwelling catheter in the home setting. Home Health Nurse 22 (12): 820-828
Fernandez, RS, Griffiths, RD (2006) Duration of short-term indwelling catheters- A systematic review of the evidence. J WOCN 33: 145-155.
Foxman B. (Jul 2002) Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: incidence, morbidity, and economic costs. Am J Med. 8;113 Suppl 1A:5S-13S. Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor 48109-2029, USA.
Getliffe, K, Fader, M., Allen, C., Pinar, K. Moore, K. (2007) Current evidence on Intermittent catheterization. J WOCN May/June 289-296.
Gray, M. (2004) What nursing interventions reduce the risk of symptomatic Urinary tract infection in the patient with an indwelling catheter? J WOCN 31 (1): 3-13.
Jones, S et al (2007) Care of urinary catheters and drainage systems.Nursing Times. 103 (42): 48-50
Lemke, JR, Kasprowicz, K, Worral, PS (2005) Intermittent catheterization for Patients with a neurogenic bladder: sterile versus clean using evidence Based practice at the staff nurse level. J Nurs Care Quality 20(4) 302-306
Moore, KN, Burt, J, Voaklander, DC. (2006) Intermittent catheterization in the Rehabilitation setting: a comparison of clean and sterile technique.Clinical Rehabilitation. 20: 461-468
Nash, M. (2003). Best Practice for Patient Self-Cleaning of Urinary Drainage bags. Urologic Nursing 23 (5). 334-339.
Newman, DK, Fader, M., Bliss DZ. (2004) Managing incontinence using technology, devices, and products. Nursing Research 53 (6S): S42-48.
Parkin, J., Scanlan, J., Woolley, M., et al. (2002) Urinary catheter “deflation cuff” Formation: clinical audit and quantitative in vitro analysis. British Journal Of Urology. 90 (7): 666-671
Pomfret, I. (1997) Urinary catheters: selection, management and prevention of infection. Br J Community Nursing 5 (1): 5, 8, 10-13.
Pratt, RJ, et al (2007) Epic2. national evidence-based guidelines for preventing Healthcare associated infections in NHS hospitals in England. Journal of Hospital Infections: 65S, S1-S64
Siegel, TJ (2008) the ins and outs of urinary catheters. Advance for Nurse Practitioners Aug. 57-60.
Smith, JM (2003) Indwelling catheter management: from habit-based to evidence-based Practice. Ostomy/Wound Management 49 (12) 34-45
SUNA Clinical Practice Guidelines (2005) Care of the patient with an indwelling catheter SUNA Clinical Practice Guidelines (2005) Male urethral catheterization SUNA Clinical Practice Guidelines (2005) Female urethral catheterization SUNA Clinical Practice Guidelines (2009) Prevention and control of catheter-associated Urinary tract infection All available at: http://www.suna.org
Toughill, E. (2005) Indwelling urinary catheters: common mechanical and Pathogenic problems. AJN. 105 (5) 35-37.
WOCN Clinical Fact Sheet. Indwelling catheters. Available at http://www.wocn.org/pdfs/WOCN_Library/Fact-Sheets/C_INDCAT.pdf